Women with Vision @ the Royal West of England Academy

I like the way the Royal West of England Academy building is old and complex, making it a bit of a warren to explore, with unexpected treasurers round each corner, and the smell of the cosy café with its real coffee and organic health food, a constant temptation.

This winter the RWA’s overarching theme is Women with Vision, and they are showing four separate exhibitions of women artists designed to celebrate:

1. Vote100, the centenary of women gaining the vote. (In 1918, Parliament passed an act granting the vote to women over the age of 30 who were householders, the wives of householders, occupiers of property with an annual rent of £5, or graduates of British universities. About 8.4 million women gained the vote. It was only in 1928 that Parliament passed the Representation of the People [Equal Franchise] Act that extended the voting franchise to all women over the age of 21, i.e. granting women the vote on the same terms as men.)

2. 140 years since the RWA opened its doors The RWA has always featured women among its members and exhibitors, and is celebrating the fact.

Frink-Blow-Lawson

The main exhibition space at the RWA consists of two very big light airy rooms upstairs. These are currently housing a joint exhibition of work by:

  • Dame Elisabeth Frink CH DBE RA (1930-1993)
  • Sandra Blow RA (1925-2006)
  • Sonia Lawson RA RWS RWA (b.1934)

Elisabeth Frink

Dame Elisabeth is known for her haunting sculptures, generally figurative, of animals or people, always done in a way that you can see the hand modelling, the working of the clay which made up the original casts i.e. very much not smooth and perfect, sometimes looking like they’re the carbonised remains of burnt up bodies.

There were nine pieces, big and small, in the main gallery.

Sculptures by Elisabeth Frink at the RWA. Photo by Lisa Whiting

Sculptures by Elisabeth Frink at the RWA. Photo by Lisa Whiting

I wanted to like them, but none of them really did it for me. Certainly not as much as her two enormous pieces which have been strategically placed in the RWA’s main entrance hall, In memoriam III and Walking man. These are much more impactful.

In Memorian III by Dame Elisabeth Frink. Photo by Lisa Whiting

In Memoriam III by Dame Elisabeth Frink. Photo by Lisa Whiting

Maybe I lack subtlety and refinement, but these two pieces just have a semi-cartoon, slightly science fiction effect, which I find immediately compelling.

Walking man (Riaces I) by Dame Elisabeth Frink. Photo by Lisa Whiting

Walking man (Riaces I) by Dame Elisabeth Frink. Photo by Lisa Whiting

Also these works are fairly widespread and have become a little iconic. Not to the broader public, maybe, but to gallery goers. I’m sure the Bristol Art Gallery just down the road has a similar head by Frink Tate in London has a version of the walking man. And I saw a version of the monumental head in the Lightbox Gallery in Woking a year or two ago. Maybe I like them because they’re familiar.

Sandra Blow

Sandra Blow’s works are massive abstract works, generally with rags and scraps of material attached to the canvas to make them 3-D and break up the surface. There was no particularly consistent use of shapes or patterns. Compared to artists I’ve recently seen like Jean Arp (blobby zoomorphic shapes) or Mondrian (rigid geometrical lattices) Blow’s designs feel bigger, freer, incorporating whatever shapes, swirls or gestures, take her fancy and feel appropriate.

Installation view of the Sonia Blow room at RWA. Photo by Lisa Whiting

Installation view of the Sonia Blow room at RWA. Photo by Lisa Whiting

I liked the scale and freedom of all of them, but particularly warmed to Breakwater and Helix.

Sonia Lawson

Lawson’s work appears to come in two completely different flavours, both using oil on very big canvases but to completely different effect. On the left wall are very figurative works depicting works with titles like Grieving womanPortrait of my motherGarrison town.

Installation shot of paintings by Sandra Blow. Photo by Lisa Whiting

Installation view of paintings by Sandra Blow. Photo by Lisa Whiting

I didn’t warm to the naive use of figurative people, in a kind of rough, dirty realism style.

On the opposite wall hung a set of much more abstract works. She River was inspired by poems by the poet Linda Saunders and depicts a dried-up river bed with dragonflies hovering over it. A photo cannot convey the extent to which Lawson has incised and engraved lines all over the canvas, creating a rich sense of texture. Close up, this incision and scouring is incredibly exciting and vibrant.

She river by Sonia Lawson (2005)

She river by Sonia Lawson (2005)

This is the lightest and happiest of the works here, but all of them use this technique of incision and carving into the paint to great effect. Next to it is the completely different Herd (1996), which consists of rows of deer depicted in the primitive style of cave paintings, ordered in rows as in a frieze from the ancient world. Very powerful.

Installation view of paintings by Sandra Blow. Photo by Lisa Whiting

Installation view of paintings by Sandra Blow. Photo by Lisa Whiting

Women of the RWA

There’s a door from these two big main exhibition spaces into a suite of four smaller rooms.

Two of these are devoted to ‘Women of the RWA’. Women were admitted to the RWA since its foundation in the 1840s and these rooms give a comprehensive selection of work by women RWAs over the past few centuries.

From the earliest ones – cheesy chocolate box paintings of cats by Augusta Tallboys – right through to ultra-modern sculptures and canvases, and featuring such famous names as Dame Elizabeth Blackadder, Gillian Ayres OBE and Vanessa Bell.

The work is so utterly varied that it’s impossible to make any generalisations except that – there have obviously been scores of interesting women artists born or based in the South-West. In this photo you can see Double Hare by Sarah Gillespie (in the middle) and Fishes by Chien-Ying Chang (on the right).

Installation view of Women of the RWA

Installation view of Women of the RWA. Photo by Lisa Whiting

I like the RWA. Away from London, it feels less pressurised, less high profile, less big money. The art is always more varied, more relaxed, more unexpected. You can like what you fancy.

Cornelia Parker: One day this glass will break

The final room in the set is devoted to an exhibition of work by Cornelia Parker OBE. She has been experimenting with photogravure which, as I understand it, is a technique which involves placing objects on prepared photographic paper to create an image which isn’t a photograph in the conventional sense, but which nonetheless captures the object, with a spooky aura.

They’re all conventional print-sized black-and-white works, depicting wine decanters, glasses, cups, light bulbs, grapes and so on – a kind of experimental photographic twist on the still life genre.

Installation view of One Day This Glass Will Break. Photo by Lisa Whiting

Installation view of One Day This Glass Will Break. Photo by Lisa Whiting

Parker is most famous for the works where she submits objects to extreme treatment, blowing them up as in Cold Dark Matter: An Exploded View (1991) or the wonderful Thirty Pieces of Silver (1988-9) where, as the Tate website puts it, she selected:

a thousand flattened silver objects, including plates, spoons, candlesticks, trophies, cigarette cases, teapots and trombones. All the objects were ceremoniously crushed by a steamroller at Cornelia Parker’s request. She then arranged the transformed silver artefacts into thirty disc-shaped groups, which are suspended about a foot from the floor by hundreds of fine wires.

That strikes me as being post-modern, conceptual, punk art genius.

By contrast, this series of photogravure prints was pretty enough but not, I felt, in the same imaginative league.

Anne Redpath

On the ground floor is the small exhibition room where I saw PJ Crook’s exhibition, Metamorphoses, a few months ago. Now it’s showing works by Anne Redpath, the first woman elected as a Royal Scottish Academician. They are brightly coloured, often dominated by red.

To be honest, I was so overflowing with impressions from the previous wealth of images and sculptures, big and small, that I didn’t have the head-space to do this justice.


Related links

The RWA has a very good visual presence on the internet. Its website has galleries of images for each of its exhibitions, and it has a great photostream on Flickr.

Reviews of other RWA shows

Women and ethnic minorities in the art world

I’ve recently read a number of feminist critiques of the art world accusing it of being an all-male patriarchy which women can’t enter, of having a glass ceiling which prevents women from reaching the top, and of systematically underplaying or denying the achievement of women artists.

While I’m not really qualified to tackle all these issues in their entirety, the books did make me start paying closer attention to the gender of the artists featured in the London art exhibitions I visit, to the gender of the exhibition curators, and to the gender of the people running the main London art galleries which I frequent – with the following results:

Recent art exhibitions and their curators

  1. Oceania – Peter Brunt, Nicholas Thomas
  2. Heath Robinson’s War Effort – Geoffrey Beare
  3. Peter Pan and Other Lost Children – Geoffrey Beare
  4. Liberty / Diaspora by Omar Victor Diop – Curatorial Project Manager: Karin Bareman, Curatorial Assistant: Leanne Petersen ♀
  5. Learn the Rules Like a Pro, So You Can Break Them Like an Artist! – Cliff Lauson and Tarini Malik ♀
  6. Edward Burne-Jones – Alison Smith ♀
  7. Space Shifters – Dr Cliff Lauson
  8. Modern Couples: Art, Intimacy and the Avant-Garde – Jane Alison ♀
  9. Frida Kahlo – Making Herself Up – Claire Wilcox and Circe Henestrosa ♀
  10. Christo and Jeanne-Claude: Barrels and The Mastaba – Melissa Blanchflower ♀
  11. Aftermath: Art in the wake of World War One – Emma Chambers and Rachel Rose Smith ♀
  12. Picasso 1932: Love, Fame, Tragedy – Achim Borchardt-Hume and Nancy Ireson ♀
  13. Vanessa Winship: And Time Folds – Alona Pardo ♀
  14. Dorothea Lange: Politics of Seeing – Alona Pardo and Jilke Golbach ♀
  15. I Am Now You – Mother by Marcia Michael – Renée Mussai ♀
  16. Devotion: A Portrait of Loretta by Franklyn Rodgers – Mark Sealy, Renée Mussai ♀
  17. Shirley Baker
  18. Alex Prager: Silver Lake Drive – Nathalie Herschdorfer ♀
  19. Tish Murtha: Works 1976–1991 – Val Williams, Gordon MacDonald, Karen McQuaid ♀
  20. Monet and Architecture – Rosalind McKever ♀
  21. Print! Tearing It Up – Paul Gorman, Claire Catterall ♀
  22. World Illustration Awards 2018 – committee
  23. Killed Negatives – Nayia Yiakoumaki ♀
  24. ISelf Collection: Bumped Bodies – Emily Butler ♀
  25. The London Open 2018 – Emily Butler ♀
  26. Ed Ruscha: Course of Empire – Christopher Riopelle
  27. Thomas Cole: Eden to Empire – Tim Barringer, Christopher Riopelle and Rosalind McKever ♀
  28. Quentin Blake: Voyages to the Moon and the Sun – Olivia Ahmad ♀
  29. Tomma Abts – Lizzie Carey-Thomas (assistant curator Natalia Grabowska) ♀
  30. Enid Marx – Alan Powers, Olivia Ahmad ♀
  31. Edward Bawden – James Russell
  32. Under Cover – Karen McQuaid ♀
  33. Lee Bul – Stephanie Rosenthal (Eimear Martin, Bindi Vora) ♀
  34. Adapt to Survive – Dr Cliff Lauson
  35. AOP50 – Zelda Cheatle ♀
  36. Andreas Gursky – Ralph Rugoff
  37. Age of Terror – Sanna Moore ♀
  38. Neo-Romantic Book Illustration in Britain 1943-55 – Geoffrey Beare
  39. Charmed lives in Greece – Evita Arapoglou, Ian Collins, Sir Michael Llewellyn-Smith ♀
  40. Post-Soviet Visions – Ekow Eshun
  41. Made in North Korea – Olivia Ahmad, Nicholas Bonner ♀
  42. Ocean Liners: Speed and Style – Ghislaine Wood ♀
  43. All Too Human – Elena Crippa (Laura Castagnini, Zuzana Flaskova) ♀
  44. Lucinda Rogers – Olivia Ahmed ♀
  45. David Milne: Modern Painting – Ian Dejardin, Sarah Milroy ♀
  46. Living with gods – Jill Cook ♀
  47. Illuminating India – Shasti Lowton ♀
  48. Rhythm and Reaction – Catherine Tackley ♀
  49. Ilya and Emilia Kabakov – Juliet Bingham, Katy Wan ♀
  50. Women with Vision: Elisabeth Frink, Sandra Blow, Sonia Lawson – Nathalie Levi ♀
  51. Women of the Royal West of England Academy – Nathalie Levi ♀
  52. Cornelia Parker: One day this glass will break – Antonia Shaw ♀
  53. Opera: Passion, Power and Politics – Kate Bailey ♀
  54. Scythians – St John Simpson
  55. War Paint – Emma Mawdsley ♀
  56. Modigliani – Nancy Ireson, Simonetta Fraquelli, Emma Lewis, Marian Couijn ♀
  57. Soutine – Barnaby Wright, Karen Serres ♀
  58. Cézanne Portraits – John Elderfield, Mary Morton, Xavier Rey
  59. Van Eyck and the Pre-Raphaelites – Susan Foister, Alison Smith ♀
  60. Burrell Degas – Julien Domercq
  61. Lake Keitele: Akseli Gallen-Kallela – Anne Robbins ♀
  62. Monochrome – Lelia Packer, Jennifer Sliwka ♀
  63. Rachel Whiteread – Ann Gallagher, Linsey Young, Helen Delaney & Hattie Spires ♀
  64. Dali/Duchamp – Dawn Ades, William Jeffett, with Sarah Lea and Desiree de Chair ♀
  65. Jasper Johns – Roberta Bernstein & Edith Devaney ♀
  66. Impressionists in London – Caroline Corbeau-Parsons & Elizabeth Jacklin ♀
  67. Matisse in the studio – Ann Dumas & Ellen McBreen ♀
  68. Jean Arp – Frances Guy & Eric Robertson ♀
  69. Tracey Emin / Turner – Tracey Emin ♀
  70. Tove Jansson – Sointu Fritze ♀
  71. Basquiat – Dieter Buchhart & Eleanor Nairne ♀

Artists by gender and race

71 shows
43 about specific artists (i.e. not about general themes)
52 named artists, of whom –
22 (42% of 52) were women
Black or Asian artists 4 (6%)

Curators by gender and race

71 shows
110 curators and assistant curators
81 women curators (74% of 110)
29 men curators (26%)
5 Black or Asian curators (5%)

London gallery directors by gender

  1. Army Museum Director – Janice Murray ♀
  2. Autograph ABP – Dr Mark Sealy MBE 
  3. Barbican Director of Arts –  Louise Jeffreys ♀
  4. British Museum – Hartwig Fischer 
  5. Calvert22 – Nonna Materkova ♀
  6. Courtauld Gallery Director – Deborah Swallow ♀
  7. Dulwich Picture Gallery Sackler Director –  Jennifer Scott ♀
  8. Guildhall Art Gallery & London’s Roman Amphitheatre – Sonia Solicari ♀
  9. Hayward Gallery Chief curator – Ralph Rugoff 
  10. Heath Robinson Museum Manager – Lucy Smith ♀
  11. House of Illustration – Colin McKenzie 
  12. Imperial War Museum – Diane Lees ♀
  13. National Army Museum – Janice Murray 
  14. National Gallery – Gabriele Finaldi 
  15. National Portrait Gallery –  Nicholas Cullinan 
  16. The Photographers’ Gallery – Brett Rogers 
  17. Royal Academy of Arts President – Christopher Le Brun 
  18. Saatchi Gallery – Rebecca Wilson ♀
  19. Serpentine Gallery Co-Directors – Hans-Ulrich Obrist, Yana Peel ♀
  20. Tate Britain Director –  Alex Farquharson 
  21. Tate Modern Director – Frances Morris ♀
  22. Victoria and Albert Museum Director –  Tristram Hunt 
  23. Whitechapel Gallery – Iwona Blazwick ♀

Bristol & Margate gallery directors by gender

Recently I was in Bristol and visited the main art gallery and the Royal West of England Academy:

Bristol City Museum and Art Gallery Director – Laura Pye ♀
Royal West of England Academy Director – Alison Bevan ♀

And popped down to Turner Contemporary in Margate:

Turner Contemporary, Margate Director – Victoria Pomery ♀

Grand total of gallery directors

27 galleries/museums
27 directors
17 women directors (63% of 27)
10 men directors (37%)
1 Black or Asian director (Mark Sealy) (4%)

Conclusions

I accept that the selection of exhibitions I happen to have gone to is subjective (although it does tend to reflect the major exhibitions at the major London galleries).

The gender of curators similarly reflects my subjective choices of venue – but it has in fact remained pretty steady at around 75% women, even as I’ve doubled the number of exhibitions visited over the past couple of months.

The genders of the heads of the main public London galleries are objective facts.

Anyway, from all this very shaky data, I provisionally conclude that:

  1. Of exhibitions devoted to named artists (not about themes or groups) about 40% are about female artists.
  2. About two-thirds of the London & Bristol art galleries I’ve visited are headed by women.
  3. Significantly more art exhibitions are curated by women than by men (about 75%).
  4. It is common to hear talk about ‘diversity’ and ‘inclusivity’ in the art world, but not a single major London gallery is run by someone of black or Asian ethnicity, and none of the major art exhibitions I’ve visited were curated by blacks or Asians.

Visitors Also, hardly any visitors to exhibitions are black or Asian. At the Monochrome exhibition, there were no non-white visitors, but no fewer than five of the ‘security assistants’ were black. There were no black or Asian people in the one-room Lake Keitele show. There were no black or Asian visitors at the Degas, though all the women serving in the shop were Asian. Of the 170 people I counted in the Cézanne exhibition, there was one black man, and two Chinese or Japanese. In the Modigliani show, no black people – and so on…

From all of which I conclude that if there is an ‘absence’ or repression going on here, it is not – pace Whitney Chadwick and other feminist art critics – of women, who are in fact over-represented as heads of galleries and as exhibition curators: it is of people of colour, who are almost completely absent from this (admittedly very subjective) slice of the art world, whether as artists, administrators, curators or visitors.

Only the Basquiat show was about a black artist (and it attracted a noticeably large number of black visitors) but even this was curated (astonishingly) by two white people.

All of which confirms my ongoing sense that art is a predominantly white, bourgeois pastime.

Age And old. Every exhibition I go to is packed with grey-haired old men and women. It would be interesting to have some kind of objective figures for sex and age of gallery-goers (I wonder if Tate, the National and so on publish annual visitor figures, broken down into categories).

When I began to try and count age at the Cézanne show I very quickly gave up because it is, in practice, impossible to guess the age of every single person you look at, and the easiest visual clue – just counting grey-haired people – seemed ludicrous.

So I know that these stats are flawed in all kinds of ways — but, on the other hand, some kind of attempt at establishing facts is better than nothing, better than relying on purely personal, subjective opinions.

Now I’ve started, I’ll update the figures with each new exhibition I visit. I might as well try to record it as accurately as I can and see what patterns or trends emerge…

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