Aspects of Paradise Lost

Theology

Does PL succeed in justifying the ways of God to man?
A: No. The whole argument hangs on three or four very debatable points:

  • Whether you accept the assertion, repeated over and over by God, the Son, the angels and the narrator – that worship from created beings is only meaningful if it is freely given i.e. created beings have to be free – and that freedom involves the freedom to do wrong and well as right. To which one replies: a) couldn’t God have created a world in which there was no evil? Hence, no temptation? Lost of freedom and choices: just nothing Evil. b) couldn’t God have intervened at various points to prevent the tragedy? The obvious answer is, Yes.
  • Whether you accept the assertion that all mankind deserves to be punished for something done before they were born. Obviously not.
  • Whether God could have forgiven them there and then and said, I’ll give you a second chance. Why not?
  • (All this is accepting the hard-to-understand but much-repeated point that merely because God foresees something, does not make it pre-ordained. Let’s accept that.)
  • (And accepting the strange idea that God makes a universe knowing it will be wrecked – why?)

The solution to the entire problem with Milton’s theology is to realise that Christianity is not designed to tell a logical story of the creation: Christianity has devised a myth which explains the current state of mankind, society and people. For those who buy into the myth it has tremendous psychological power – but it is a myth, created retroactively to make sense of the status quo – if you examine the same myth as if it were a logical story explaining the origin of the universe then it becomes highly questionable, because you are essentially saying that God created an imperfect world – and there’s no way out of the paradoxes that throws up – because the Christian response – that, no, God created a perfect world and we, humanity, screwed it up, works if you relate that myth to your own personal life story which will inevitably involve screw-ups and failings (that’s what the whole myth is designed to do). But fails as a stand-alone account of the creation of the whole world, viewed in the abstract. Thus Milton tries heroically, epically, but fails to justify the ways of God to man. God’s ways seem harsh, cruel and arbitrary.

If it succeeded, why isn’t part of the syllabus at any Catholic or Protestant seminary school? Because, by taking the story so literally, Milton lets the cat out of the bag.

Architecture

Does the poem lay out its pretty well-known story in a suitable way?
I think Milton succeeds admirably in taking the well-known story and adapting it for the traditional methodology of epics i.e. starting in media res and telling key events in flashback – just as Odysseus tells all his exotic adventures in flashback, or Aeneas tells the people of Carthage his story ditto, thus Raphael tells the origins of the rebellion and the War in heaven and the Creation of the universe in flashback; and just as Aeneas is vouchsafed a vision of the futurity of Rome, so Adam is given a vision of the future of humanity. Top marks.

However, it is a major flaw that the poem tails off as it drags on – that Raphael’s account of the Creation or Michael’s prophecy are boring. Why? Because we’ve read them before, described much more snappily, in the Bible.

Style

Does Milton’s style help or hinder one’s reading? Is it answerable to the subject matter?
Although the essence of Milton’s style remains the same throughout (the Latinate grammar, the odd use of syntax, Latinate vocabulary) no-once can doubt that the poem goes off. The best books are the first four. Why? Several reasons:

  • In Hell Milton is free-est to invent episodes; thereafter he is more constrained by the Biblical account. Thus in Book X it is a breath of fresh air when Satan encounters Sin and Death again, making their way up to the Universe.
  • Milton seems to have put more effort into fully imagining these early books: one simple indicator is that they are packed with epic similes – whereas the long books of Raphael’s are almost barren of similes – making you realise how refreshing they had been, to add variety to the style and rhythm.
  • If books VI, VII, X, XI and XII are boring because they have to retell large chunks of Genesis without using similes, other sections of books V and so on are just as boring because they have to convey long gobbets of Christian theology. Long stretches are not much more than versified pamphlets.

Epic poem

Does PL succeed as an epic poem in the tradition of Homer, Virgil, Camoes, Tasso?
A: Yes.

Aesthetics

Taken all in all, is Paradise Lost a success?
A: A limited one, or Yes, with reservations. These reservations stem from:

  • The failure of the theology to allay big doubts about God, its fundamental aim.
  • The failure of the later books to maintain the imaginative force and novel subject matter of the earlier ones.
  • The consequent flattening or failure of the style, which becomes pedestrian and boring for long stretches.

It seems to me axiomatic that Milton was a devout Christian who wrote the poem with the explicit aim of justifying the ways of God to men. The facts are the following: the first four or so books are the best. ‘Best’ means they are most enjoyable to read because containing the highest proportion of vivid and memorable language.

From Book V onwards the poem becomes more stodgy – the Raphael books: his account of the origins of the devil rebellion i.e. Satan’s revolt against the Son up till Abdiel standing up against the rebels (V), the actual War in Heaven (VI), the creation of the universe and of Man – all this feels already-read (VII), and then Raphael’s deliberately vague description of the Universe; then Adam’s memories of waking & meeting God (VIII).

The whole of Book IX is an account, told in real time, of Eve leaving Adam, then being seduced by the serpent to eat the fruit, then persuading Adam to eat it. This ought to be the dramatic centrepiece of the poem but is the dullest – we know what’s going to happen so there’s no drama – instead there is lengthy and hard-to-follow argumentation between snake and Eve – she eats – and then between Eve and Adam – he eats – they make love – then feel guilt and shame.

Given a choice, which would you rather read – bks 1,2 & 3 – or bks 9,10,11?

Book X where the Son quickly judges the pair is only enlivened by the great scenes of Sin and Death building a path up to the earth.

Book XI where Michael lays out the future of the human race is dull.

Milton’s style

Debate ranges over Milton’s style, at one end people say it’s recognisably English phrasing and syntax – at the other Dr Johnson & co say it’s written in a style heavily influenced by Latin, and unlike any English ever spoken. I’m at the Dr Johnson end, but then most poetry is unlike the language actually spoken by citizens. The question is not the disputed source or origin of Milton’s style. It’s whether it works.

Christopher Ricks’ book shows in minute detail that Milton’s style is highly considered, carefully wrought, and meaningful i.e. for long stretches it does work.

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Paradise Lost Book X by John Milton (1667)

PARADISE LOST
BOOK X
1,104 lines

Unlike Homer or Virgil, Paradise Lost is one long versified argument. Thus, it doesn’t stand or fall on its conformity to the classical rules governing the epic; it stands or falls according to whether its central argument succeeds in convincing its reader. That argument is this: that God was entirely justified in creating innocent people and letting Satan out of hell to tempt and corrupt them; and that God was perfectly justified in punishing the entire human race with lifetimes of pain and suffering for the one mistake made by their unprepared and innocent ancestors (mentioned by Adam X 822).

Almost no-one in their right mind can accept these arguments; even Christians (Dr Johnson, T.S. Eliot) have been made so uneasy at the transparency with which their beloved religion is laid bare in all its moral bankruptcy that they have strained to find other reasons to rubbish the poem (bad style etc).

Part of the relief one feels when the poem moves to Satan is aesthetic – the style is more vigorous, colourful, there are more and more florid metaphors and epic similes – but also moral – it is a relief to get out of the stifling atmosphere of hypocritical ‘love’ and ‘charity’ which colours the Adam & Eve and Heaven sequences – back to straightforward, morally uncomplicated baddies.

The Father and the Son are exactly like the sadists in a Dickens novel who beat a small child till its bottom bleeds for some trivial misdemeanour, all the time shedding a hypocritical tear, and telling the child, ‘You know, this hurts me more than it hurts you.’

1-33 description of how the guardian angels brought the news back to heaven of the Fall a) not very good guardian angels, then b) the phrase is explicitly used, that God ‘hindered not Satan’. Why not? To prove his point God is prepared to ruin his creation and spawn countless billions of lives lived in pain and suffering.
34-62 God exonerates himself from any blame: the Fall is entirely man’s fault. Then says he’ll send the Son to judge man, destined also to be his redeemer.
63-67 God indicates his Son.
68-84 The Son happily goes to judge those he has promised to die for.
85-102 The Son departs heaven’s gate, flies down to Paradise, walks in the cool of the day.
103-8 the Son calls for Adam.
109-115 they come, looking shamefaced.
116-7 Adam was ashamed, being naked.
118-123 How do they know they’re naked? Have they eaten of the fruit?
125-143 Adam blames Eve: she gave me & I did eat.
145-156 The Son explains Eve’s place was to be subjected, under rule. Why did Adam set her up as God?
157-162 Eve confesses.
163-174 God curses the serpent.
175-181 God curses the serpent.
182-192 a prophecy that will be fulfilled when the Son returns in glory to heaven with the devils in tow…
193-196 God curses Eve.
197- 208 God curses Adam.
209-228 The Son pities them and clothes them; and clothes their innards with righteousness. Then flies back up to Heaven and tells God all.

229-234 Cut away to Sin & Death sitting at the gateway to hell, where hell’s flames flame out into Chaos. Wow.
235-263 Sin suggests to her son, Death, that they build a causeway up where Satan went; she feels a new power…
265-270 Death says he will follow where Sin leads.
272-353 So off they fly into Chaos. 3 epic similes! And build a causeway, then, arriving at the universe, fasten it to the entrance: so there is a now a wide way from the universe down to hell; near the ladder which goes form the universe up to heaven. Stan had hid in the undergrowth to hear Eve seduce Adam, them both to fall and argue; then the Son to arrive and judge them. Now, flying back to hell, he meets his beloved children!
354-382 Sin congratulates Satan.
385-409 in a devilish parody of God giving Man dominion over all the animals, Satan awards Sin and Death dominion over every living thing on earth.
410-459 Satan wings on down to Hell, finding all the devils gathered in a conclave, he sneaks into Pandemonium, sits on his throne surveying; then makes his presence known!
460-503 Satan’s speech to the devils, dramatising his own heroism, making fun of God and man.
504-546 all the devils turn into snakes, including Satan.
547-584 the snakes all go to eat the fruit of a delusive Tree which appears in Hell – but it tastes of ashes to the devils…

585-612 Sin and Death arrive in Paradise.
613-648 God points out the arrival to the angels, emphasising (as always) that it’s not his fault and there’s nothing he can do about it. Because they don’t know that ultimately the Son will defeat them both; the angles all sing hymns of praise…
649-719 God calls forth angels to change the universe post-Fall e.g. introduce seasons, introduce storms and extremes of temperature, make animals eat each other and enemies to Man.
720-862 Adam’s long soliloquy: a) all future generations shall curse him b) why did God ever create him? c) he realises the fatuousness of this question and that his punishment is just. d) he longs for death e) then worries that he may not be able to die f) gets entangled in speculations about death, when will it strike etc? g) why should all mankind for one man’s guilt be condemned? The answer: what can proceed from him but corruption? (Well why doesn’t God bloody fix it?) Adam longs for death.
863-66 Eve approaches trying to condole.
867-908 Adam blames Eve, blames her for going off, for being tempted, for tempting him: O why did God create woman? [all this is Error: God created her as a helpmeet].
909-936 Eve falls at his feet and begs forgiveness. She says she’ll go back to the Tree and beg God to put all the blame on her alone… beginnings of acknowledgement, abasement…
947-965 Adam is softened by her self-abasement: he says he wishes he alone could bear all the guilt. Rise, let’s work together; how we can mutually commiserate…
966-1006 Eve argues that, to prevent their entire posterity falling prey to Death, they should abstain from procreation. Or if they can’t – shouldn’t they commit suicide?
1013-1096 Adam replies with 2 arguments: a) it’s unlikely they can evade God’s judgement so simply: what if they kill themselves but God’s judgement continues only worse? B) also, God prophesied their posterity’s heel shall bruise the serpent’s head: well, shall they deny themselves the punishment of their enemy? So they should forget about suicide: instead concentrate on God’s forgiveness: the pain in childbirth will soon be over; replaced by joy. His curse to work is better than idleness. And God will provide. If we ask, he will give us help against cold or heat, clothes and fire.
In this speech Adam discovers the true Christian spirit of penitence leading to forgiveness, grace.
1097-1104 so they go back to the place and humbly beg forgiveness.

It’s tempting to say the psychological development of Adam and Eve is realistic.
Is it?
Or is it as schematic as everything else in the poem?
Or can it be both at the same time – highly schematic/diagrammatic – and also psychologically realistic? The same ambivalence or dual value attaches to Defoe, to Robinson Crusoe, which is an earnest religious tract and a cracking yarn at the same time.

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Paradise Lost Book IX by John Milton (1667)

PARADISE LOST
BOOK IX
1,189 lines

1-47 semi-invocation: Milton describes his subject matter as fitter than Greek or medieval legend. ‘Answerable style’. And describes the way the poetry comes to him at night ‘Easy my unpremeditated verse.’

NO more of talk where God or Angel Guest
With Man, as with his Friend, familiar us’d
To sit indulgent, and with him partake
Rural repast, permitting him the while
Venial discourse unblam’d: I now must change [ 5 ]
Those Notes to Tragic; foul distrust, and breach
Disloyal on the part of Man, revolt,
And disobedience: On the part of Heav’n
Now alienated, distance and distaste,
Anger and just rebuke, and judgement giv’n, [ 10 ]
That brought into this World a world of woe,
Sinne and her shadow Death, and Miserie
Deaths Harbinger: Sad task, yet argument
Not less but more Heroic then the wrauth
Of stern Achilles on his Foe pursu’d [ 15 ]
Thrice Fugitive about Troy Wall; or rage
Of Turnus for Lavinia disespous’d,
Or Neptun’s ire or Juno’s, that so long
Perplex’d the Greek and Cytherea’s Son;
If answerable style I can obtaine [ 20 ]
Of my Celestial Patroness, who deignes
Her nightly visitation unimplor’d,
And dictates to me slumb’ring, or inspires
Easie my unpremeditated Verse:

48-98 Satan returns to Paradise after circling the globe for a week avoiding sight of the sun from where Uriel spotted him in Book IV. Descends through the River Tigris which appears as a fountain at the foot of the Tree of Life.
99-178 Satan’s 1st soliloquy: bemoaning how low he has fallen, seeking disguise in a suitable beast.
179-191 Satan slips into the mouth of the serpent.
192-204 Morning wakes Adam and Eve who pray to God.
205-225 Eve suggests they labour apart in the garden since a) everything keeps growing faster than they can train it b) if in sight of each other they keep interrupting each other.
226-269 Adam replies: a) God hasn’t strictly assigned them to do everything and not exchange smiles and words b) God made us for delight, after all c) soon little hands will help us d) it’s true separation leads to happy reunion but e) Adam warns of the devil lurking somewhere: Eve should stay with him.
270-289 Eve is hurt that Adam thinks that she can be so easily beguiled.
290-317 Adam replies if the Devil was strong enough to tempt angels he can tempt them both: best to stay together.
318-341 Eve argues that a) if they’re so insecure Eden is no longer Eden b) what is faith, love, virtue, ‘unassayed?’ i.e. these virtues only mean something if tested (cf the Areopagitica) c) are you really saying God left us in such an imperfect state?
342-375 Adam replies that the fault is not in Eden which is perfect; it is in themselves whose Reason is free, thus continually liable to err. Thus it follows they will be less likely to err if there’s 2 of them together. But if she thinks ‘trial unsought may find us both securer’, Go.
376-384 Eve insists on the last word. Sexism. She can’t believe the foe will attack the weaker – vain confidence!
385-411 Eve goes forward beautiful and confident as a dryad from Greek myth. Vain confidence.
412-72 Satan is waiting amid the green delights of Eden; and when he sees Eve is momentarily transported by her beauty; but hate and envy return.
473-493 Satan’s second soliloquy of hate, envy, revenge.
494-531 Satan sidles up as a magnificent tho sycophantic snake. Notable that he has 2 epic similes in these 30 lines. Where Satan is are heroic similies giving variety and power to the verse (may be a tactic of Milton’s to associate paganism, and the fallen simile form itself, with Satan – but makes for greater dynamism, variety).
532-548 Satan flatters Eve.
549-566 Eve wonders that the snake can speak. How come?
567-612 Satan says he ate of the fruit of the tree and a) understood the universe and b) could talk and c) realised Eve was the divinest thing in the garden. Flattery.
615-624 Eve asks which tree?
625-630 Satan says he’ll take her there.
631-646 Satan leads Eve to the tree and is compared to ignis fatuus in another epic simile.
647-654 Eve tells the snake she is forbidden to touch the tree.
655-58 Satan pretends surprise. Not allowed to eat fruit?
659-663 Only of this tree.
664-678 Satan then rises up like an ancient orator (another epic simile)
679-732 Satan gives reasons to eat the fruit: a) it has allowed a beast to speak b) he is not dead, as threatened c) God won’t punish the appetite for knowledge of good and evil, that would itself by unjust d) it was only forbidden to keep you in awe e) whereas if you taste you could become gods f) if she will die it will be the human dies to become a god. Meanwhile, g) who says the gods made earth? Whereas everything good seems to come from the earth h) how can your knowledge hurt him? I) how can eating it do any harm against His will if He is omnipotent? [An impressive list of reasons]
733-744 plus lunchtime draws on and Eve is hungry i.e. physiology contributes to flawed reason – body and soul together.
745-779 Eve soliloquises: a) it’s made the serpent speak b) it’s obviously valuable or else why be banned? c) a prohibition against knowledge binds not d) the serpent has not died e) she trusts the serpent as bringing good news to man. [Eve’s soliloquy doesn’t echo Satan’s only 5 of Satan’s 9 reasons are repeated…]
780-794 Eve eats the fruit. ‘Greedily she engorged without restraint.’
795-833 Eve soliloquises a list of errors: a) she will dress and praise the Tree each morning (instead of God); b) under the impression that she will soon be equal with the gods c) she praises Experience over Wisdom d) thinks God can’t see her e) shall she share her knowledge with Adam or keep it selfishly? f) this will make her more equal with Adam, maybe superior (and thus more loved – completely failing to understand the Scale of Being) g) she will entice Adam because she can’t bear the thought of her dying & he having a second Eve – selfishness..
834-855 Eve bows low to the Tree (blasphemy) and then goes to meet Adam who meets her coming, carrying a garland of flowers.
856-885 Eve tells Adam she’s eaten of the Tree: and lies that she did it chiefly for him.
886-895 Adam is astonished, drops the garland whose petals fade.
896-916 Adam soliloquises: he immediately casts his lot with her, and can’t imagine life without her.
921-960 Adam addresses Eve: a) perhaps they won’t die b) surely God won’t punish them, his own creation c) he will go with her: so forcible is ‘the bond of nature’.
961-989 Eve rejoices that this trial has proved Adam’s love; but she assures him they won’t die; and she’s never tasted anything so sweet.
990-1016 Adam eats ‘not deceived, but overcome with female charm’. Earth groans. They are intoxicated then inflamed with lust. They acquiesce in sex, sleep, then awaken to their shame, like Samson epic simile.
1067-1098 Adam laments the effects of the fall: a) good lost and evil got; b) knowledge of their nakedness, innocence lost, c) how shall he face the angels? d) he wants to pull the woods and tress over him e) meanwhile, best to weave coverings for their parts.
1099-1133 They make coverings from trees. Now reason is overthrown by appetite and passion and so they fall into arguing.
1134-1142 Adam blames Eve for wanting to go out alone.
1143-1161 Eve says don’t blame her: a) the serpent could as well have tempted Adam as her b) why didn’t he absolutely forbid her from going off? It’s all his fault.
1162 Adam is for the first time in his life angry: a) he’s just chosen death over life for her, ungrateful bitch b) he warned her as much as anyone could, short of physically stopping her, which defeats the idea of free will c) her overconfidence d) his delusion in her beauty and perfections. Ends with the sexist thought that men should never let women rule because they will choose the evil route then blame the man.

Thus they in mutual accusation spent
The fruitless hours, but neither self-condemning,
And of their vain contest appeared no end.
1187-1189

Thoughts

Milton is the most intellectual poet. The entire plot, structure, shape, pattern of the poetry is dictated by a logical argument: even individual words are carefully chosen and placed for their multiple meanings.

You have to work quite hard to understand the many arguments in Satan’s temptations, or the graded way Eve leaves Adam etc.

Thus, the few ‘poetic’ touches: Satan like the will o’ the wisp; the garland dropping from Adam’s hand – come as a great relief because there is no logical argument embedded in them.

60% of the lines are dialogue, itself consisting of versified argumentation. But it feels like more because you have to make proportionately more effort to follow the logic.

Prose 98, 179-204 (26), 1, 3, 1, 4, 1, 2, 385-472 (88), 493-531 (39), 4, 1, 2, 1, 631-646 (16), 2, 664-678 (15), 12, 780-794 (15), 834-855 (22), 886-895 (10), 4, 1, 990-1016 (27), 1034-1066 (33), 1099-1133 (35), 1, 1, 3. 468 40%

Speech: 99-178, 205-225, 227-269, 273-289, 290-317, 322-341, 343-375, 376-384, 473-493, 532-548, 553-566, 568-612, 615-624, 626-630=5, 647-654, 3, 5, 679-732, 745-779, 795-833, 856-885, 896-916, 921-959, 961-989, 1017-1033, 1067-1098, 1134-1142, 1144-1161, 1163-1186. 721 60%

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